List of papers/works related to the Watershed Transform

We ask the authors of works related to the watershed transform, both in applications and its sole development, such as surveys, new algorithms, implementations, etc., to inform us about it, so we can add them to this list. If possible, also provide the PDF or similar document, or a way that an interested person could access it, such as a DOI link, or another web page link. You may find contact information on the About page.


  1. Vincent, L.; Soille, P., "Watersheds in digital spaces: an efficient algorithm based on immersion simulations". IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, v. 13, no.6, pp.583-598, June 1991

  2. Meyer, Fernand, "Topographic distance and watershed lines". Signal Processing, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp. 113-125, July 1994

  3. Cousty, Jean; Bertrand, Gilles; Najman, Laurent; Couprie, Michel, "Watershed cuts: minimum spanning forests and the drop of water principle". IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, v. 31, n. 8, pp. 1362-1374, August 2009

  4. Bieniek, Andreas; Moga, Alina, "An efficient watershed algorithm based on connected components". Pattern Recognition, v. 33, n. 6, pp. 907-916, June 2000.

  5. Falcão, Alexandre X.; Stolfi, Jorge; Lotufo, Roberto de Alencar, "The image foresting transform: theory, algorithms, and applications". IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, v. 26, n. 1, pp. 19-29, January 2004.

  6. Audigier, Romaric; Lotufo, Roberto de Alencar; Couprie, Michel, "The tie-zone watershed: definition, algorithm and applications". In: IEEE International Conference on Image Processing ICIP 2005, v. 2, pp. 654-657, September 2005.

    • PhD Thesis (in portuguese): Audigier, Romaric, "Zona de empate: o elo entre definições da transformada de watershed e entre elas e a segmentação via conexidade nebulosa". PhD thesis, FEEC/Unicamp, Campinas, SP, July 2007.
  7. Meyer, F., "Minimum spanning forests for morphological segmentation". In: Proceedings of ISMM94 - Mathematical Morphology and its Applications to Image Processing, v. 2, pp. 77-87, 1994.

  8. Cousty, Jean; Bertrand, Gilles; Najman, Laurent; Couprie, Michel, "Watershed cuts: thinnings, shortest-path forests and topological watersheds". IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, to appear, March 2009.

  9. Bertrand, Gilles, "On Topological Watersheds". J. Math. Imaging Vis., vol. 22, no. 2-3, pp. 217-230, 2005.


  1. Meijster, Arnold; Roerdink, Jos B. T. M., "A disjoint set algorithm for the watershed transform". In: Proc. IX European Signal Processing Conf EUSIPCO '98, pp. 1665-1668, 1998
  2. Sun, Han; Yang, Jingyu; Ren, Mingwu, "A fast watershed algorithm based on chain code and its application in image segmentation". Pattern Recognition Letters, v. 26, n.9, pp. 1266-1274, 1 July 2005
  3. Bieniek, Andreas; Moga, Alina, "A connected component approach to the watershed segmentation". In: Proceedings of the fourth international symposium on Mathematical morphology and its applications to image and signal processing, pp. 215-222, 1998
  4. Osma-Ruiz, Víctor; Godino-Llorente, Juan I.; Sáenz-Lechón, Nicolás; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro, "An improved watershed algorithm based on efficient computation of shortest paths". Pattern Recognition, v. 40, n. 3, pp. 1078-1090, March 2007
  5. Lin, Yung-Chieh; Tsai, Yu-Pao; Hung, Yi-Ping; Shih, Zen-Chung, "Comparison between immersion-based and toboggan-based watershed image segmentation". IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, v. 15, n. 3, pp. 632-640, March 2006
  6. Mortensen, E.N; Barrett, W.A., "Toboggan-based intelligent scissors with a four-parameter edgemodel". In: IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 452-458, v. 2, June 1999.
  7. Lotufo, Roberto de Alencar; Falcão, Alexandre X., "The ordered queue and the optimality of the watershed approaches". In: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Mathematical Morphology and its Applications to Image and Signal Processing, v. 18, pp. 341-350, June 2000.
  8. Beucher, S.; Meyer, F., "The Morphological Approach to Segmentation: The Watershed Transformation". In book: Mathematical morphology in image processing, edited by: Edward R. Dougherty, New York: M. Dekker, 1993.

Parallel Algorithms

  1. Bieniek, A.; Burkhardt, H.; Marschner, H.; Nölle, M.; Schreiber, G., "A parallel watershed algorithm". In: Proceedings of 10th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis (SCIA97), pp. 237-244, 1997.

First papers

  1. Digabel, H.; Lantuéjoul, C., "Iterative Algorithms". In: Proc. Second European Symp. Quantitative Analysis of Microstructures in Material Science, Biology and Medicine, pp. 85-99, 1978.
  2. Beucher, S.; Lantuéjoul, C., "Use of Watersheds in Contour Detection". In: International Workshop on Image Processing: Real-time Edge and Motion Detection/Estimation, September 1979.
  3. Meyer, F.; Beucher, S., "Morphological Segmentation". Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, v. 1, n. 1, pp. 21-46, September, 1990.

Not Classified